Balancing project needs and environmental compliance

Fiber Optic Cable Installation

Technical Services

Cultural Resources

From a Cold War–era missile silo to the traces of a prehistoric camp on the shores of a long-extinct lake, cultural resources include a vast array of sites, features, and artifacts encompassing the full range of human activities over thousands of years. GrassRoots archaeologists and historians have expertise in every phase of cultural investigations from archival research and data recovery to evaluations and heritage planning. GrassRoots also provides highly specialized archaeological services, including human osteology, constraints analysis, and predictive modeling.


Paleontology, or the study of fossil remains, is often overlooked in the environmental compliance process even though many projects in California require that these resources be accounted for.

GrassRoots provides expert paleontologists to develop background information and probability models for paleontological resources, as well as skilled field surveyors and construction monitors, helping to ensure that costly surprises do not arise during the latter stages of the environmental review process.

Visual Resources

Visual resources (also known as aesthetics) is a highly specialized area of environmental analysis. Several federal agencies have created detailed visual guidelines and methodologies, including the Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Forest Service, and Federal Highway Administration. An in-depth visual analysis may also rely on various tools (e.g., GIS, maps, photographic simulations, and aerial photo interpretation) to determine viewsheds, identify sensitive viewers, select key observation points, and systematically evaluate changes to the visual environment.

GrassRoots brings more than 30 years of expertise in visual resources analysis to bear on your project. We can help you determine whether a full-blown technical analysis is called for, or whether a qualitative evaluation is sufficient.